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WES follow up

If you want to follow up on any of the issues I raised in my presentation at the World Education Summit on the 22nd March 2022 then this is a great place to start, as it provides references and links to additional information that underpinned the presentation.

About assessment

Sherwood, D. (2020, Oct 27). Why are exam grades unreliable?

Twining, P. (2021, Sept 23). Introducing nano-credentials.

Twining, P. (2021, Aug 20). Rethinking assessment - from grades to micro-credentials.

Twining, P. (2020, Nov 4). Characteristics of effective summative assessment.

Twining, P. (2020, Sept 8). From standardised testing to living CVs.

Twining, P. (2019, Mar 19). Assessing creativity.

Twining, P. (2019, Mar 11). AI and assessment - mining learning outcomes.

Twining, P. (2018, Oct 12). What is Point of Learning (PoL) - moving beyond standardised testing.

About curriculum

Twining, P. (2019, Mar 13). More thoughts on curriculum.

Twining, P. (2018, Dec 7). Why is a knowledge based curriculum no longer fit for purpose?

Twining, P., Butler, D., Fisser, P., Leahy, M., Shelton, C., Forget-Dubois, N. & Lacasse, M. (2021). Developing a quality curriculum in a technological era. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69. 2285-2308.

About Learning and Pedagogy

Rix, J. & Twining, P. (2007) Exploring education systems: Towards a typology for future learning? Educational Research, Vol.49, No.4, pp.329-341. ISSN: 1469-5847

Twining, P. & Aubrey-Smith, F. (2021, Aug 31). Trust, Empowerment and Learning with Digital Technology.

Twining, P. (2010). When Educational Worlds Collide. In Sheehy; Ferguson & Clough (Eds.) Virtual Worlds: Controversies at the Frontier of Education (Education in a competitive and globalizing world). pp.125-142. New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN: 978-1608762613

Twining, P. (2009). Exploring the educational potential of virtual worlds – some reflections from the Schome Park Programme. British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol.40, No.3, pp.496–514. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00963.x

Twining, P. & Footring, S. (2010) The Schome Park Programme – exploring educational alternatives, in Peachey, A; Gillen, J; Livingstone, D. & Smith-Robbins, S. (Eds.) Researching Learning in Virtual Worlds. pp.369-380. Milton Keynes, Guildford: Springer. ISBN: 978-1-84996-046-5

Twining et al. (2017). NP3 – New Purposes, New Practices, New Pedagogy: Meta-analysis report. London: Society for Educational Studies.

About Alignment

Butler, D., Leahy, M., Twining, P., Akoh, B., Chtouki, Y., Farshadnia, S., Moore, K., Nikolov, R., Pascual, C., Sherman, B. & Valtonen, T. (2018). Education Systems in the Digital Age: the need for alignment. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, Vol.23, No.3, pp.473-494.

Twining, P. (2018, Oct 16). Educational alignment (and sociocultural theory).

About practitioner research and Research Invested Schools

The Research Invested Schools website -

Godfrey, D. (2016). Leadership of schools as research-led organisations in the English educational environment. Cultivating a research-engaged school culture. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 44(2), 301-321.Handscomb G and MacBeath J (2003). The research engaged school. Essex County Council.

Mills, M., Mockler, N, Stacey, M., & Taylor, B. (2021). Teachers orientations to educational research and data in England and Australia: implications for teacher professionalism, Teaching Education, 32(1), 77-98. DOI: 10.1080/10476210.2020.1843617

OECD (2021). Teaching as a Knowledge Profession: studying pedagogical knowledge across education systems. OECD.

Prendergast, S., & Rickinson, M. (2019). Understanding school engagement in and with research. The Australian Educational Researcher, 46, 17-39.

Sharp, C., Eames, A., Sanders, D., & Tomlinson K. (2006). Leading a Research-engaged School. National College of School Leadership.

Twining, P. (2019, May 22). From reflection to practitioner research – the best form of CPD.

Twining, P. (2021, Feb 18). Teachers as researchers.

Twining, P; Raffaghelli, J; Albion, P. & Knezek, D. (2013). Moving Education into the Digital Age: The contribution of Teachers’ Professional Development. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol.29, No.5, pp.426-437. ISSN: 1365-2729

Twining, P. & Henry, F. (2014). Enhancing ‘ICT Teaching’ in English Schools: Vital lessons. World Journal of Education. 4(2), 12-36.




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